The impact of online hate

Published: 6 February 2023
Last updated: 16 March 2023

This qualitative research report examines the impact of exposure to online hate and hateful abuse on people with protected characteristics. It focuses on content found on user-to-user services.

Ofcom has carried out this research in line with our duty to promote and research media literacy in the UK. It also builds our evidence base as we prepare to implement the new online safety laws. The findings should not be considered a reflection of any final policy position that Ofcom may adopt when we take up our role as the online safety regulator.

Content warning

This report explores the impact of online hate, including hate speech and hateful abuse, relating to people with different protected characteristics.

While offensive words and phrases have not been included, some people may find the content of this report distressing.

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