More UK parents than ever feel children’s online use now carries more risks than benefits, according to Ofcom’s latest annual study of children’s media and online lives.
Parents and carers are becoming more likely to trust their children with greater digital independence at a younger age . But far fewer believe the benefits of their child being online outweigh the risks than five years ago (55% across the UK, down from 65% in 2015). Parents and carers in Wales, however, are more likely than the UK average to feel more positively about the internet, with two-thirds (67%) agreeing that the benefits to their children outweigh the risks.
This comes as children are now more likely to see hateful content online. Half (51%) of 12-15s across the UK who go online had seen hateful content in the last year, an increase from 34% in 2016. Fewer children in Wales claim to see this type of content (37%).
Parents across the UK are increasingly concerned about their child seeing content which might encourage them to harm themselves (45%, up from 39% in 2018); this is especially true among parents in Wales (65%). Similarly, two gaming-related problems are particularly concerning to parents in Wales; the pressure on their child to make in-game purchases of things like ‘loot boxes’, a virtual item containing rewards (55% vs. 42% UK average) and the possibility of their child being bullied via online games (51%, vs. 36% UK average).
However, UK parents are now more likely than in 2018 to speak to their children about staying safe online (85%, up from 81%). Parents in Wales are more likely to have these conversations (95%) than the UK average. UK parents are also nearly twice as likely to go online themselves for support and information about keeping their children safe than a year before (21%, up from 12%). Again, parents in Wales are more likely to do this than the UK average (33%).
Looking at what today’s children are doing online, Ofcom has uncovered three notable online trends over the last year.
Today’s study finds that older children are using a wider range of social media platforms than ever before. WhatsApp in particular has grown in popularity among 12-15 year-olds since last year, despite having a minimum age limit of 16.
WhatsApp is now used by almost two thirds of older children (62%) – up from 43% in 2018. For the first time, it rivals Facebook (69%), Snapchat (68%) and Instagram (66%) as one of the top social media platforms for older children.
Newer platforms such as TikTok – which enables users to create 15-second lip-sync, comedy and talent videos – are also becoming more popular. Around one in seven older children across the UK use TikTok (13%) – up from 8% in 2018. One in 20 older children use Twitch – the live streaming platform for gamers. Similar proportions of 8-15s in Wales use TikTok (12%) and Twitch (7%).
Children are using more connected devices than ever before. Among these, smart speakers saw the biggest increase in use over the last year. More than a quarter of children now use them – up from 15% in 2018 – overtaking radios (22%) for the first time. Children in Wales are more likely than the UK average to use smart speakers (41%) and radios (33%). UK children’s use of smart TVs also rose from 61% to 67% in 2019 - consistent with use among children in Wales (68%).
Children’s viewing habits are changing radically too. Almost twice as many children watch streaming content than they did five years ago (80% in 2019 vs. 44% in 2015). In 2019, fewer children watched traditional broadcast TV than streaming content (74%), with a quarter not watching it at all. Children in Wales are more likely to watch broadcast TV (81%) than the UK average, but similar proportions to the UK watch streaming content (82%).
But YouTube is as popular as ever among UK children, remaining children’s firm favourite for video ahead of Netflix, Amazon Prime, the BBC and ITV – with children in Wales echoing this.
When it comes to going online, children are most likely to use a tablet (68%) but mobiles are becoming increasingly popular and children are now as likely to use a mobile as they are laptops (55%). Children in Wales are more likely than the UK average to use a tablet to go online (79%), but equally as likely to use a mobile (55%).
This move to mobile is being driven by older children in the UK, for whom 10 is becoming the age of digital independence. Between age nine and 10, the proportion of children who own a smartphone doubles from 23% to 50% – giving them greater digital autonomy as they prepare to move to secondary school. By the time they are 15, almost all (94%) children have one.
Yih-Choung Teh, Strategy and Research Group Director at Ofcom, said: “Today’s children have never known life without the internet, but two million parents now feel the internet causes them more harm than good.
“So it’s encouraging that parents, carers and teachers are now having more conversations than ever before with children about online safety. Education and stronger regulation will also help children to embrace their digital independence, while protecting them from the risks.”
Children’s Media Lives is an Ofcom-commissioned qualitative research report by Revealing Reality. It provides an in-depth understanding of how a sample of 18 children, aged eight to 18, think about and use digital media, and how this has changed over time.